Ascertaining the “Subliminal messages” of marketing – development and authentication of instrument

  • Hamid Mahmood, Dr. Zainudin Awang, Dr. Muhammad Abdullah, Dr. Irfan Sabir, Muhammad Aftab, Asad Ur Rehman, Muhammad Bilal Majid


To develop and authenticate the instrument for inclining the “Subliminal messages” in marketing and associated behavior among consumers is the purpose of this study. Rigorously suggested methodology in literature for instrument development was used to develop and validate the instrument. Sample size for data collection from respondents is 870 in current study, in which 157 sample size for pilot testing, 349 for exploratory survey and 364 for confirmatory survey. Average Variance Extracted, Cronbach’s alpha, Composite Reliability, Critical Ratio and discriminant validity was used in current study to measure the reliability and validity of instrument. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis results propose measurement of instrument with 10 items for forming the “Subliminal messages” in marketing. Present study incapable to behavioral validation of subliminal messages in market and consequently the responses of consumer in this regard. Therefore, researchers fortified to examine these indications. Current study discourses a gap in the literature of ethics that paved a way for envisaging and analytically validate the instrument for assessing the “Subliminal messages” in market. Testing and validation of instrument grounded on samples strained from universities of Malaysia for rationalization.