Vehicular Emission Impact and its Control Strategies for Urban Cities
Air pollution is one of the serious environmental concerns globally and of the urban Asian cities including India where majority of the population is exposed to poor air quality. The health related problems such as respiratory diseases, risk of developing cancers and other serious ailments etc. due to poor air quality are known and well documented. Besides the health affects, air pollution also contributes to tremendous economic losses, especially in the sense of financial resources that are required for giving medical assistance to the affected people. The poor are often the most affected segment of the population as they do not have adequate measures to protect themselves from air pollution.
Most of the Cities are also experiencing rapid urbanization and the majority of the country’s population is expected to be living in cities within a span of next two decades. Since poor ambient air quality is largely an urban problem this will directly affect millions of the dwellers in the cities. The rapid urbanization has also resulted in a tremendous increase the number of motor vehicles. The vehicle fleets have even doubled in some cities in the last one decade. This increased mobility, however, come with a high price. As the number of vehicles continues to grow and the consequent congestion increases, vehicles are now becoming the main source of air pollution in urban area.
These countries have however taken a number of measures for the improvement of the air quality in cities. These include, right from the improvement in the fuel quality, formulation of necessary legislation and enforcement of vehicle emission standards, improved traffic planning and management etc. The non-technical measures taken include, awareness raising regarding the possible economic and health impacts of air pollution and available measures for improving air quality, increasing use of cleaner fuels and purchase of vehicles with advance emission control devices, increasing institutional framework and capacity building for the monitoring of vehicle emissions. The paper presents a review of the vehicular emission problems in Indian cities, the various sustainable technological developments are being introduced.