Role of Triple-A in GSCM Practices: Evidence from Pesticide Sector of Pakistan

  • Adeel Akhtar, Kullapa Soratana, Dirk Sackmann


Triple-A capabilities (Agility, Adaptability and Alignment) are vital for the success of supply chains around the world. Literature proposes that more studies on Triple-A and GSCM Practices are required in the context of developing countries. Therefore, this study is aimed to investigate the relationships between Triple-A and GSCM Practices in the context of a developing country i.e. Pakistan by focusing the pesticide sector. A mixed methodology, quantitative as well as qualitative, was followed keeping in view the positivist and post-positivist research paradigms. At first stage, literature was reviewed and 5 preliminary interviews were conducted by using purposive sampling and snowball sampling to develop a conceptual framework for establishing the association between Triple-A and GSCM Practices. At second stage, data were collected with the help of an online structured questionnaire for validating the conceptual framework. SmartPLS 3.0 was used for estimating the results. Results indicated an association between agility and GSCM Practices. Adaptability and GSCM Practices were also linked with each other. However, Alignment and GSCM Practices were not associated with each other. Then at the third stage semi-structured in-depth interviews of 12 senior level managers of the leading pesticide firms of Pakistan were conducted with the help of purposive sampling and snowball sampling to strengthen the findings of quantitative data results. Interviews were recorded and then transcribed to extract the themes to revalidate and strengthen the findings of quantitative data results and to develop the recommendations for the future research. The findings of the in-depth interviews revealed that Triple-A capabilities are essential for the successful implementation of GSCM Practices. Interview findings also indicated that Triple-A capabilities have positive effect on GSCM Practices. Therefore, it is concluded that Triple-A capabilities are positively associated with the GSCM Practices. It is recommended to conduct further researches in different countries by focusing various sectors to increase the generalizability of this research.