Situational Leadership as a Mediator of Intrinsic Motivation and Extrinsic Motivation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior at Pandeglang Regency Government's ASN

  • Antonius Dieben Robinson Manurung, Ibadillah Solihin


A phenomenon that is often seen in governance is the absence of an ideal composition between the needs of the state civil apparatus (ASN) and the needs of public services. This is partly due to the absence of national ASN strategic planning, the validity of the needs of state civil servants per agency based on workload, and government agencies not having ASN competency standards (Rakhmawanto, 2016). World wide governance indicator data from the World Bank in 2017 shows that Indonesia is still ranked fifth out of all ASEAN countries in government effectiveness. This makes ASNs more demanding that their behavior is not limited to in-role or working with job description standards, but also extra-roles or more than expected. The Regional Government of Pandeglang Regency is one of the autonomous regions that has also been affected by the absence of an ideal composition between the number of ASN, and the need for public services. The number of ASNs with their additions is not proportional to the number of losses and their additions and is carried out not regularly (AFS 2019). Employees who work more than what the organization expects are known as organizational citizenship behavior, which the authors call OCB. This is interesting if a more in-depth study is carried out on OCB behavior in the Regional Government of Pandeglang Regency. The author wants to find out what are the main factors that influence OCB. From several literature, esearchers found several variables that influence OCB, including situational leadership, extrinsic motivation, and intrinsic motivation. The researcher used the OCB concept from the Organ (in Sharma & Jain, 2014) with 5 (five) dimensions, namely altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue, courtesy, and sportsmanship. Situational leadership uses concepts from Hersey and Blanchard (in Fahmi, 2013) with 4 (four) dimensions of instruction, consultation, participation, and delegation. Intrinsic Motivation uses the concept from Herzberg (in Luthans & Doh, 2018) with 5 (five) dimensions, namely achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the work itself. Meanwhile, Extrinsic Motivation uses the Herzberg concept (in Robbins & Judge, 2017) with 6 (six) dimensions, namely salary/wages, job security, working conditions, company procedures, leadership, and interpersonal relationships. In this case, Situational leadership is used as a mediator variable for OCB. Meanwhile, the variable's intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation are exogenous variables that affect OCB as an endogenous variable. Therefore, the objectives to be achieved from this study are to analyze the impact of situational leadership on OCB; the impact of intrinsic motivation on OCB; the impact of extrinsic motivation on OCB. To achieve this goal, quantitative research methods are used, with a survey approach through a questionnaire to obtain data from 386 respondents, whose selection is carried out by proportional stratified random sampling. The data analysis technique used a structural equation model (SEM) with Lisrel version 8.72. The results of the study are expected to know and measure the impact of situational leadership as a mediator of intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation to improve organizational citizenship behavior of the Regional Government of Pandeglang. Managerial implications in this study are expected, especially theoretical contributions in the development of scientific knowledge as well as practical (applicative) contributions to the leadership and management of the Regional Government of Pandeglang Regency and its employees.