Characterization on Morphological and Bonding Behavior of Torrefied Biochar from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch
This study is purposely generated to investigate the torrefaction process effects on surface morphology as well as bonding behavior of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) to become torrefied OPEFB biochar as a potential renewable energy source. The analyses of morphology as well as the bonding behavior have been investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Moreover, both surface morphology and bonding behavior of the torrefied OPEFB biochar is significantly influenced by the degradation of the lignocellulose, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. SEM images showed the surface morphology of OPEFB after undergo torrefaction by which it was completely decomposed by initiating pores while the structure become flattened with almost left sharp edge compared to the raw OPEFB. The changes of presence functional groups before and after the torrefaction process were observed under certain wavelength which were C=O (1750-1680 cm-1), N-H (3500-3100 cm-1) and C-N (1350-1000 cm-1). These functional groups determined the changes of functional groups as well as the wavelength whereby the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin take place. The longer torrefaction process, biochar started to rupture due to longer period of thermochemical reaction process, and the FTIR spectrum proved that the weak bonds had diminished at this condition.