A Study of Barriers of Female Participation in Leisure Physical Activities In Taiwan
Objectives: There tended to be low proportion of female population participated in regular leisure-time physical activities. As a matter of fact, it might be affected by various barriers. Therefore, the issue was of concern to women and was worthy of being discussed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors of barriers to Taiwanese women's engagement in regular leisure physical activities and come up with strategies of improving female participation in physical sports. Methods: A review of literature regarding various barriers to female participation in leisure sports in Taiwan was conducted. The literature review covered 52 papers and the study employed qualitative research and content analysis methodology to discuss these factors during 1979~2014. Results: As a result, it was demonstrated that the barriers to Taiwanese women's engagement in regular leisure physical activities were as follows: time(13.7%), gender consciousness(12.6%), space and facilities(12.1%), finance(9.3%), physiological and psychological factors(8.8%), companion(8.2%), family and children(8%), sport skills(5%), education(3.8%), environmental safety(3.3%), interest(2.7%), instructors(2.7%), work(2.2%), weather(1.7%), lack of support(1.7%), life pressure(1.1%), personality(1.1%), social behavior(1.1%), and traffic(1.1%). Conclusions: According to the data analysis, the study found that major factors of barriers to women's engagement in regular leisure physical activities were structural constraints. Besides, there were also intrapersonal constraints and interpersonal constraints. These barriers required careful examinations in order to advance the idea that sport world is not male dominated. Males were not the only ones who needed physical leisure activities.