The Most Influential Historical Aspects in Biofilm Evolution
About 3.25 billion years ago, in the early fossil record, the development of biofilms is widespread across several Archaean and Bacterial groups, including live fossils found in the deepest branching phylogenetic tree divisions. The formation of biofilms is undeniably a historic and essential part of the developmental cycle of prokaryotes, and plays a crucial role in survival under diverse environmental conditions. The concept of biofilm development was a very gradual process having many small perceptions that have now merged and synthesized and created a major "wave" that will bring microbiology into the new millennium. Such early findings that bacteria really grow in surface-attached matrix-enclosed biofilms fit into a growing set of observations made by many groups. The primary instances are the microscopic observations by Antony van Leeuwenhoek from Delft, The Netherlands (1632–1723), mentioned by Dobell in 1960, which were published in letters between September 1683 and June 1708, where Leeuwenhoek observed microorganism aggregation in the teeth scurf samples collected from his own mouth. Biofilms formed by microorganisms are an organized community of cells embedded in the polymer matrix secreted from the cells itself. Biofilms are capable of cohesion to host cells or infused into tissue or cell secretions, and sometimes may contain host components. The molecular mechanisms and ecological forces of bacterial socialization can be analyzed using the blend of booming field of microbial social evolution and molecular microbiology alongside evolutionary theory. Knowledge of the history, nature and evolution of biofilm aid in the design of better preventive strategies for infections linked to biofilm. This article highlights the major milestones in the evolutionary aspects of biofilm.