The Impact of Industrial Revolutions on the Urban Transformations of Cities Case Study Greater Cairo
The industrial revolution came to light in Egypt in the late 18th century with the beginning of the French Expedition. Various industries were established at the level of the Egyptian territory. In the middle of the last century, there was a great trend in Egypt towards industrial development. A large number of industries were settled in some major cities such as Cairo.
The most important industries were concentrated in Shubra El-Kheima, where the metal and chemical industries are located. The iron and steel industry in Helwan focused on heavy industries and textile and weaving industries. The focus of all these industries led to the increase in urban expansions in Cairo at rapid rates. Where the area of Shubra reached about 3,500 acres after it was transformed from 1945 to an industrial area, as well as Helwan district has an area of more than 5000 acres (1), after the establishment of a textile and weaving factory and then followed the localization of major industries in this and this would lead to an increase of the population, which reached one million. This illustrates the great role that industry plays in driving forward the urban growth in any form.
This study aims to identify the most important current urban and environmental changes resulting from industrial settlement in Cairo.
Studying the expected urban and environmental change for Cairo in the light of the digital industrial revolution and this study highlights the changes that occurred in the city of Cairo through two main axes:
First: The current change that occurred during the first three stages of the Industrial Revolution and which turned out to be: The First Industrial Revolution in the era of the “Alaweya” dynasty was one of the most important landscapes of the city of Cairo and that was the main center of all basic industries and this was not intended to increase urbanization as agricultural activity was then one of the most important elements of stability of the population. As for the Second Industrial Revolution (1952-1979), there was no considered planning for the industrial zones, which increased in size and expanded randomly to aggravate the problems of violation on agricultural land and the negative environmental effects that occurred in both North and South Cairo. In the Third Industrial Revolution (1980 - 2010), the State adopted the policy of establishing new cities to be the hub of attraction for industrial investments, and therefore the state sought to exploit industrial activity as a growth pole of these new urban communities and thus reduce population congestion in Cairo.
Second: The future change is the expected change in the light of the fourth wave of industrial revolution and how to preserve the current urban structure of Cairo from extinction and make the city of Cairo able to withstand the rapid modern changes.