The Role of Nanodrug Delivery and Quantum Dots in Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment
Abstract: Cancer is one of the most serious public health problems in the world, which causes millions of deaths every year. Despite all the efforts in laboratories and clinics, still there is no definitive therapy for cancer. The past few decades have witnessed the significant advance in cancer treatment and diagnosis, such as the development of quantum dots and nanoscience. Nanoscience is the study and manipulation of materials at the nanoscale, which can be linked to cancer treatment and diagnosis. Nanomedicine employs the adhibition of nanoparticles in diagnosis, treatment and disease prevention. By avoiding the disadvantages of conventional anti-cancer drugs, such as nonspecific biodistribution, low water solubility, and limited biocompatibility, nanoparticles provide a more convenient approach towards the delivery system due to advantages such as their optical properties and biocompatibility. Other chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles can overcome challenges such as the interference of the body’s immune system with cancer therapy. Apart from the nanodrug delivery system, quantum dots function as an important targeted imaging fluorochrome for cancer diagnosis in the field of molecular imaging, such as semi-conductive, zero-dimension and strong fluorescence. Quantum dots, which are artificially structured nanoparticles, are seen as one of the most promising in vitro and in vivo fluorochrome for its high sensitivity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability based on its unique properties and special microenvironment around tumour tissue compared with traditional bulk materials.