A Systematic Review:The Integration of Mobile Applications in Science Education.Are You Ready?
This review article is about the development and use of mobile applications in Science learning, covering the publications from 2010 to November 2019. Qualitative content analysis was used to investigate the studies on Science mobile applications regarding the development and design of the mobile applications used, the teaching strategies adopted to integrate the use of mobile applications in Science learning and facilitating sessions, and the outcomes after integrating the use of mobile applications in Science learning and facilitating sessions. This review found that mobile apps for Science subjects are similar in terms of the specifications of the applications developed, the teaching strategies adopted, and the outcomes obtained after using those mobile applications, but none of the mobile applications featured 21st Century Skills elements and linked them to the Industry Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) context, especially for Science learning in primary schools. Researchers need more explicit connections between the teaching principles and design features in a conducive mobile learning environment for integration with accurate theories, along with the application of 21st Century Skills elements in the applications. Furthermore, this review noted that a stronger alignment is needed to link the Science mobile applications specifications, appropriate teaching strategies, and the outcomes that should be obtained by each researcher in order to encourage students to manage skill-based outcomes, such as collaborative learning, personalised learning, inquiry learning, problem-based learning, and project-based learning. Finally, more research is needed to integrate Science mobile applications for use in various Science topics, student cognitive levels, and diverse audiences.