Numerical Investigation and Analysis of the Pipes’ Pressure in Water Transmission Lines
Water transmission lines are made of various pipes made of different materials. The water or fluid hammer that comes about as a result of pressure fluctuations and the existence of negative pressure is one of the primary factors threatening the soundness of the pipes. Negative pressure and its analysis in the transmission lines have been taken into account in the present study. Using the case study of water transmission lines in the city of Saqqez in Kermanshah Province, this phenomenon, i.e. water hammer, and the pressure fluctuations have been taken into consideration; use has been made of WaterGems and Hammer Software packages for modeling purposes.
At the end, it was concluded that the use of pressure vessels in the pumping station can alone cause perfect protection of the line against the pressures stemming from water hammer and that the simultaneous use of these two systems of line protection can be a proper method for safeguarding against the negative pressures. Moreover, air disc valves and/or one-way feed tanks can be used when the pressure vessel cannot alone protect the transmission line against the devastating effects of the created negative pressure. The pressure vessels are not recommended for such reasons as the need for predicting the protective preparations, constant fullness, freeze likelihood in cold regions, negative pressure and so forth.