Nanotechnology approach in Targeting and Treatment of Neurological Disorders by Overcome Blood Brain Barrier
Blood brain barrier (BBB) is the vital and important gateway exists between neural tissue and circulating blood that protects the most delicate microenvironments of the body i.e. central nervous system (CNS). The protective and unique features of BBB due to the presence of tight junctions (TJs) & adherence junction (AJs) of highly complex structures of BBB control homeostasis of the brain as well as regulate movement of ions and molecules and, even more, restricts the movement of macromolecules from blood to the brain. Brain pathologies such as neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration results in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson disease, brain tumor are the most prevalent ones which arises due to the breakdown of protective sheath and lead to impairment of BBB and found poor treatment because of some drawbacks that are associated with the development of drugs, administration and brain targeting. However, to overcome these problems, nanotechnology-based approaches might be the solution for improved brain targeting and chemotherapy due to the large surface area to nano size, better drug release at the target site with reduced side effects. This review article emphasizes on BBB, brain disorder, method of development of nanoparticles, mechanism and fate of nanoparticles distribution at target sites and their applications in diagnosis and brain therapy and definitely beneficial for nano researchers.