A Study on the Ameliorative Effect of Spirulina platensis on Copper Induced Hepato-toxicity in Cyprinus carpio
Fish serves as the bio indicators of contamination since aquatic life is susceptible to contaminants due to anthropogenic activity which poses threat to their survival. Liver the vital organ associated with diverse functions is susceptible to damage from a variety of toxicants. Copper enters the aquatic environment from various effluents posing toxicity for aquatic animals when it exceeds the threshold level influencing the physiological and immunological functions of the organism. Cyprinus Carpio well known for its nutritive value and commercial importance is chosen for the study and is exposed to copper toxicity. The immunosuppressive effect of copper is established by evaluating the lymphocyte count, level of total protein and immunoglobulins in serum and the detoxifying capacity of the liver was established by measuring the level of marker enzymes (Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase). Decrease in the lymphocyte count and reduction in the level of total protein and immunoglobulin in serum suggest immunosupression by copper sulphate. Hepatocellular damage was inferred with a significant elevation in liver marker enzymes. Nutritionally enriched Spirulina platensis housed with bio-modulatory and immuno-modulatory functions was employed to evaluate the ameliorative effect on copper induced toxicity. Increase in the lymphocyte count, total protein a nd immunoglobulin in the serum revealed the immunostimulant role of spirulina. The near normal levels of liver marker enzymes on spirulina treatment indicated its protective role which is further confirmed by histological examination.