Antibacterial activity and GC-MS analysis of baltic amber against pathogenic bacteria
Amber is a fossil residue from an etched resin from the ancient, used as a medicinal agent to control microbial infections, due to containing chemical compounds that detected by GC-MS analysis. Antibacterial activity was detected for both Dimethyl sulfoxide and ethanolic extracts of orange and brown amber. The largest zones of inhibition were 19 mm and 16 mm for Dimethyl sulfoxide extract of orange and brown amber at 250 mg/ml on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively, while the largest inhibition zones of the ethanolic extracts were 20 and 22 mm for orange and brown amber at 100 mg/ml on E. coli. The GC-MS analysis revealed a total of 35 compounds in Baltic amber. Major chemical components identified in orange and brown amber included borneol (16.80% and 17.60%), isopimar acid methyl aster (17% and 13.65%), camphor (8.15% and 7.04%), 2- Fenchanol (7.44% and 7.76%), and m-cymene (6.24% and 5.40 %), respectively. Orange amber contains seven monoterpenes, six sesquiterpenes, and three diterpenes, while brown amber contains seven monoterpenes, four sesquiterpenes, and one diterpene.