Integrating of GIS and fuzzy multi-criteria method to evaluate land degradation and their impact on the urban growth of Kirkuk city, Iraq
Land degradation occurs dramatically in dry areas; therefore, the resources of millions of producers around the world are threatened by deterioration of arable farmland. The change in urbanization growth relative to the other lands, including the conversion to vegetation land. Hence, assessing land changes is essential for reveal the status of each type of land use/land cover. In this work, LULC changes and their influence in Kirkuk city and the neighboring municipalities are all examined in between 2000,2010 and 2018 using ENVI processing, GIS, and fuzzy AHP. Landsat images with different sensors integrated by GIS helped to assess the expected LULC types. The finding revealed that the urban area was increased continuously in 2000, 2010 and 2018 about 7.723%, 11.351%, and 9.773%, respectively. The Vegetation was increased from 2000 to 2010, about 54.274%, while it decreased in the period 2010-2018 about 88.475%, and the total average reduction in the long term of 2000-2018 was 83.902%. The soil land was reduced by about 15.616% in 2000-2010 while it augmented between 2010-2018.the overall accuracy of post-classification images using SVM in different satellite data in 2000, 2010, 2018 was 98.62%, 98.88 %, 98.06% with kappa coefficients, 0.9649, 0.9703 and 0.9649 respectively. Degradation maps are indicated that the areas extremely degraded are those converted from vegetation to urban and bare soil, accompanied by those converted from soil to urban and bare soil, while the conversion from the vegetation to the soil is indicated as the moderate degradation. The study is also highlighted that the integration of Landsat data using GIS and FAHP could be a practical method to evaluate and map LULC for developing the environment.