VE Application in Material Selection Assessment and Performance of Aluminum Dross as Cement Replacement
Over the past two decades, various materials have been used in construction projects to select the best selection of materials for concrete mix design with low environmental impact. The recycling and reuse of industrial waste and by-products is important in the cement and concrete industry. Cementitious materials or fillers are increasingly needed because of the rapid growth of infrastructure to either replace cement or fine aggregates for sustainable development. This research aims to present the use of Value Engineering (VE) principles to investigate the appropriateness of using aluminum dross in concrete production by partial replacement with cement as a promising contribution to enhancing the construction industry and minimizing the environmental impacts of cement manufacturing. It can be concluded from the overall results of this study that the aluminum dross, which is an alternative obtained from the creativity phase of the VE workshop, can be used at certain replacement levels in concrete production. The evaluation phase in the VE workshop indicates that both aluminum dross and cement have to be mixed together. On the other hand, the experimental results showed that up to 20% replacement with ordinary Portland cement could be used for aluminum dross. The maximum increase in compressive and flexural strength was at replacements of 10% and 15%. However, concrete workability reduced as the percentage of aluminum dross increased. Eventually, this study recommends that VE be adopted to improve concrete projects in the construction industry by reducing costs and generating new sustainable alternatives.