A Systematic Review On The Studies Of Climate Change And Its Effect On Public Health
Climate change refers to the fluctuations in the earth’s atmosphere that occurs over a longer period of time due to natural processes or human activities. Climate change causes increase in the occurrence of incidences and degree of severe climate events such as cyclones, heat waves, floods and droughts which are referred as direct effect. Gradual changes in climate called as indirect effect results in unpredictable rainfalls, rising sea and temperature levels, affects water and air quality. These direct and indirect effects adversely impact community health. Health impact of changing climate is distributed into multiple categories of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, allergies, mental Illness and infectious diseases. Climate change affects human health especially when vector borne infectious diseases are concerned as survival, reproduction or distribution of disease viruses are predominantly susceptible to climatological conditions. The impact of climate variation on human health also depends on multiple parameters such as geographical location, exposure, sensitivity, vulnerable population, socio-economical condition and adaptive strategies. For investigating the consequences of climate variation on public health, a huge amount of climate data is collected regularly from metrological department. Similarly, health data such as incidences of diseases are collected along with period, place, gender and age of patients from various private/ public health centers. Analysis of this data has been done using different technologies such as big data analytics, machine learning/ deep learning algorithms. Accurate analysis of climate data and its effect on health diseases benefits early detection. The effective surveillance system can help in monitoring climate change and taking counteractive actions to improve public health conditions. This paper reviews the climate change and their causes, growth in different categories of diseases due to climate change, the impact of drastic and gradual climatic changes on social health and implemented adaptation strategies.