The Effect Of Urban Green Space On Particulate Matter And Heat Level In Kuala Lumpur
The effectiveness of urban green space (UGS) to sustain the urban environment in terms of air pollution and urban heat island mitigation is to be examined. Kuala Lumpur is a tropical city that experiences rapid growth and has a significant role in the economic growth of Malaysia. Two types of urban green space were selected: Permaisuri Lake Garden to represent ‘large park’ category and Manjalara Lake Garden for ‘medium park’ category. Particulate matter (PM10) was used as an air quality indicator meanwhile temperature was used as a heat level indicator to compare the climate change mitigation impact of the two types of urban green spaces. The PM10 and heat level data were calculated as the mean concentrations for four days at both UGS. The mean concentrations of PM10 and heat level between large and medium park showed significant difference (p = 0.001 for PM10; p = 0.009 for heat level). The tree covers in Permaisuri Lake Garden are denser compared to Manjalara Lake Garden as Permaisuri Lake Garden was covered with high density of tree canopy compared to Manjalara Lake Garden which is made up of shrubs and grass. Also, for each type of UGS, nine sampling points were measured which were three sampling points from inside the UGS; three points for 50 meters away from UGS and another three sampling points for 100 meters away from UGS. For both type of parks, the study found that the mean concentrations of PM10 and heat level of the inside of the UGS were lower on weekends compared to weekdays. Besides, the mean concentrations of PM10 and heat level between UGS and 50 meters away from the UGS showed no significant difference while the mean concentrations of PM10 and heat level between UGS and 100 meters away from the UGS showed significant difference. Therefore, it can be concluded that the climate mitigation in terms air quality and heat level of the urban environment are influenced by the coverage of green spaces.