The Effectiveness of Geographic Information System (GIS) on Spatial Thinking Skills (STS) Among Geography Students
Technological advances in education are a process of transition from traditional Learning and Facilitation (L&F) to the 21st-century ones. Geographic Information System (GIS) experts assert that by using GIS, it improves Spatial Thinking Skills (STS) among Geography students. The weakness of students in mastering Spatial Thinking Skills (STS) is one of the problems in Geography L&F. The experimental research design using the Experimental Group (EG) and the Control Group (CG) was adopted to examine the effectiveness of using GIS that is based on GIS modules to develop Geography students with spatial thinking skills. The discovery of one-way ANCOVA analysis at a significant level of .05 has proven that there is a compelling difference in post-test scores for STS variables [F (1,57) = 60.511; p = .000, η2 = .680]. Also, there was a notable difference between the post-test group EG and CG. Additionally, mean value is high, is EG (M = 74.83, SD = 7.927) in comparison to CG (M = 44.27, SD = 14.017). In short, the findings of the study prove that the implementation of GIS activity that is based on the GIS-STS module can notably strengthen the spatial thinking skills among the Geography students. The application of this module in L&F is beneficial and should be extended to Geography L&F in secondary schools.