Decision making of green technology retrofitting in higher learning institution

  • Nur IzieAdiana, Rozana Zakaria, Siti Mazzuana Shamsuddin, Faridahanim Ahmad


The increases in energy consumption in both new and existing buildings are currently a major concern in the country. Energy consumption in existing buildings has to be reduced since it contributes to the largest portion of the global end-use of energy at approximately 40%. The consumption of energy in an existing building at a Higher Learning Institution (HLI) is influenced by activities in the building, time of use, length of academic term, and the number of academic staff, students and visitors in the building. Thus, the retrofitting approach has become a priority in achieving energy efficiency. This approach can be divided into three steps, namely lean energy, green technology and clean energy initiatives. However, selecting the retrofitting initiatives is a complex process. It is important to initially evaluate several factors to minimise the risk and to ensure the success of the project. These factors include design, economics, occupants’ comfortability criteria, and others. This paper highlights the criteria affecting the retrofitting of an existing building in a HLI with green technology which consists of lighting and occupancy sensors towards achieving energy usage reduction. Factor Analysis with Principal Component Analysis Varimax Rotation was applied as a method of analysis where inputs were generated from the questionnaire surveys distributed to electrical and mechanical engineers who have expertise in retrofitting projects. The priority of the sub-criteria was summarised based on the significant threshold factor loading of 0.50 and above, where the results revealed that design, economics, technical, occupants’ criteria and physical criteria achieved the significant factor loading value. This paper contributes to providing information about the significant criteria which must be assessed during the decision to retrofit a building with green technology to maximise the retrofitting benefits and to achieve optimal retrofitting strategy.

How to Cite
Nur IzieAdiana, Rozana Zakaria, Siti Mazzuana Shamsuddin, Faridahanim Ahmad. (2020). Decision making of green technology retrofitting in higher learning institution. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(6s), 2033 - 2042. Retrieved from