Congestion Mitigation Approaches in Wireless Sensor Networks: Trends and Opportunities
Congestion in wireless sensor networks occurs when the traffic load exceeds the available capacity at any point in the network. Congestion may happen due to the factors like node buffer overflow, collision of packets, transmission channel contention, and rate of transmission, dynamic time variation transmission channel, and many-to-one data transmission scheme. Congestion is one of the highly critical challenges in wireless sensor networks and it has a negative impact on quality of service parameters such as end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio and energy consumption in wireless sensor nodes. Moreover, it increases packet loss and degrades the throughput of wireless channels. So, in order to handle such problems and challenges in wireless sensor networks, researchers should consider the factors to mitigate congestion. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of major congestion mitigation techniques used in wireless sensor networks.