Review of Bioremediation Techniques Focus on Environmental pollution
Objectives: Bioremediation is a process by which contaminated and polluted media such as water, soil and sub-surface materials are treated through the manipulation of the environmental conditions which trigger the growth of micro-organisms that then degrade the pollutants and contaminants. Bioremediation is considered as an effective method in comparison to other control measures. Bioremediation has an edge over other prevention methods, especially for remediation of oil spills, due to its efficiency in destroying the polluting hydrocarbons. Further, it does not allow the pollutants to flourish and damage the media. Methods: The bioremediation process commonly uses nitrifiers and de-nitrifiers as highly effective agents. In-situ and ex-situ remediation are two commonly used methods for effective bioremediation among industrial entities. A decade of improving technologies has made in-situ bioremediation more effective, cheaper and faster than pumping concentrated water above ground to filter and treat. Findings: It is interesting to note that there is a high level of concentration of toxicity in land fields meant for waste dumping, miningandin abandoned quarries. This causes threats to human health and irreparable damage to the flora and fauna due to the heavy concentration of heavy metals and other agents that are responsible for high risk health hazards.