Miracle plant Eryngium foetidum Linn- A review on Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical composition and Pharmacology
Medicinal and edible plants play a crucial role in the prevention and mitigation of different human diseases and disorders from ancient times till today. Eryngium foetidum Linn (family Apiaceae) commonly known as “Wild coriander” or “spiny coriander” is one such herb native found in Mexican country. However, today this herb is also found growing in all parts of the tropical and subtropical regions of the world including India. In India it is used as an ethnomedicinal plant used for the treatment of number of ailments such as fevers, cold, cough, vomiting, burns, fevers, hypertension, headache, earache, stomachache, asthma, arthritis, snake bites, scorpion stings, diarrhea, malaria and many other diseases. Studies suggest that leaves contain medicinally important compounds, particularly rich in triterpenes and saponins. Particularly in leaves indicate the presence of flavonoids, tannins, a saponin and several triterpenoids, but no alkaloids were reported. A significant constituent of the essential oil of the plant is E-2-dodecenal ("eryngial"), with isomers of trimethyl benzaldehyde. Preclinical studies from the past several years have shown that the extracts prepared from E. foetidum possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-carcinogenic, free radical scavenging, anti-hyperglycemic, anti-neoplastic, gastroprotective, and diuretic effects. In this review attempt made to address the chemical constituents, medicinal uses and validated pharmacological observations of E. foetidum.