Surau Beratap Madrasah: A Study on Social History and the Collapse of Cultural Value of Surau in West Sumatra, Indonesia
Surau, an Islamic assembly building in some regions of Sumatra and Malay Peninsula used for worship and religious instruction, is the oldest educational institution in Minangkabau. Even before the onset of Islam in Minangkabau, surau has already existed. Surau later experienced the Islamization process after the arrival of Islam. This study aims to describe the shift of the function of surau as an educational institution in Minangkabau culture, due to regulation of Indonesia educational system. The research was carried out by in-depth interviews with the leaders of surau and observations to educational process in surau. This study found that there has been an ambiguity of surau educational system in West Sumatra as the result of the “very centralistic“ Indonesia educational system that does not allow the educational system of surau to get legitimacy from the government. Surau unavoidably has to adopt the national educational system, therefore the local distinctiveness that is loaded with cultural values are reduced to such an extent. Surau slowly becomes madrasa, an ordinary school. This research is valuable for evaluating the educational system and law of Indonesia, in order to recognize the educational system based on local wisdom as a national educational system.
Keywords: Surau; Madrasah; Local Wisdom; Modernization of Education; Legality.