Ground Water Impact on the Building Materials of the King Seti I Funerary Temple in the West Bank of Luxor, Egypt
The funerary temple of King Seti I in Qurna is located at the west bank of Luxor, the temple is affected by both external and internal Deterioration Factors. Scientific tests and analysis were carried out on samples of salts and building materials of the temple, including optical microscopy, which showed the dissociation between the mineral grains of the stones building, as well as the erosion in the surface layers, gaps and losses in mineral components and fine cracks. Polarized microscope (PM), scanning electron microscope which is equipped with Energy Dispersive X- rays Unit (EDX), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed sandstone in this temple is Nubian sandstone consists of quartz (SiO2 Iron oxides as a cement, clay minerals , Mica of the type of biotite K (Mg, Fe)3 (AlSi3O10) (OH)2 and Halite (NaCl). Field studies have shown that the environmental factors of dwelling houses are adjacent to the temple, as well as the agricultural lands adjacent to the temple, also the temple built of sandstone porous sedimentary rocks. Temperature and humidity changes led to the melting and re-crystallization of salts in frequent continuous cycles.