Analysis of Pollutants Associated with Runoff from the East-West Highway in Front of UMK Jeli Campus, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia
Nowadays, water pollution was considered as the major threat to human health. It poses serious health risks to the public as well as aquatic life. It was important to study the sources that contribute to water pollution. These sources comprise of point and non-point source. Highway runoff as one of the non-point source water pollution is difficult to be estimated its pollutants load and captured to reduce water pollution problem so it should be studied in detailed to investigate the constituents that exist in the highway runoff water. Highway runoff water tends to contaminate groundwater and surface water. Clean up of groundwater is more difficult and expensive than clean up of surface water. Prevention is better than remediation. This study aims to identify and determine the concentration of pollutants found in East-West Highway runoff in front of UMK Jeli campus, Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia. The highway runoff water concentration was tested by nine parameters which are four heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn), TSS, NH3-N, BOD5, COD and pH through laboratory analysis using APHA standard method. The results of this study showed that, the highway runoff water quality at the study site (low traffic site) exceed the Class II limit of National Water Quality Standard (NWQS) for Malaysia. The overall mean concentration of pollutants was classified as Class III with moderate condition. This water quality was unsuitable for drinking and extensive treatment is necessary. The mean concentration of certain pollutant faces future possibility and high risk in USEPA Storm Water Quality Benchmark Limit exceeding if the appropriate measures were not taken properly to control and monitor the highway runoff water quality.
Keywords: highway runoff, APHA, NWQS, heavy metals, water pollution, USEPA Storm Water Quality Benchmark Limit.