Architecture of Padmasana Tiga in Besakih Temple, Bali Indonesia: Interpreted from the Concept of Shiva Siddhanta
The dynamics of civilization can cause radical changes in the lives of Balinese people, the government and the people of Bali must work hard so that traditional Balinese architecture can be stretched, adjusting itself to the time and conditions encountered. Padmasana tiga is a part of traditional Balinese architecture, a sacred building that functions as the sthana (place/seat) of God. Padmasana is one of the various types of Padmasana architecture in Bali, located in the largest holy place in Bali, Besakih Temple. The basic shape is a long rectangle, on which stands three forms of the same padmasana, parallel and symmetrical. Its manifestation is very different from other typology of padmasana, complemented by legendary Hindu iconography, causing padmasana tiga to be very interesting objects to study. The purpose of this study is to reveal the meaning contained in the form of padmasana tiga, so that it can be used as a guide in the development of traditional Balinese architecture in the future. To express its meaning the hermeneutic method that has been developed is used, by carrying out three stages of meaning: semantic, reflexive, and existential or ontological. From the interpretation results, the meaning of padmasana tiga is a picture of lingioni/lingam, meeting of linga and yoni, as the embodiment of the great soul of the universe. Three linga above yoni is a vertical representation of God, God in three different realms called 'Tri Purusa'. The parts of padmasana tiga represent the five elements of creation (five maha bhuta) which are depicted with legendary Hindu iconography, as well as the five levels of human spiritual attainment that are in line with the Five Brahmas (five acts of God). The highest peak of the human journey is the deepest center of the essence of the lotus flower, depicted with an empty throne at the peak of the padmasana, as a representation of God's position, a symbol of the natural freedom and eternal perfection.