Tses-24 or Tses-12: Comparison Based on ICT Context in Malaysian Education

  • Mohd Norakmar Omar, Siti Noor Ismail


Teacher self-efficacy is a term used to express the confidence and ability of a teacher to carry out a task diligently, especially in the teaching process. Therefore, an instrument developed by Tschannen-Moran and Hoy (2001), namely the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). In this study, TSES was used to measure teachers' confidence and ability to use ICT tools in teaching. The instrument has also adapted in Malay through two versions, of which one has 12 items while the other contains 24 questions. The study makes a comparison between the instrument TSES-24 and TSES-12 in the context of ICT in Malaysian secondary school education. A total of 130 secondary school teachers in Kedah, Malaysia, were involved as respondents to test the validity and reliability of the instrument. Based on the study, it finds that the TSES-24 showed higher Cronbach's alpha compared to the TSES-12 involving the three components, namely teaching strategies, classroom management, and student engagement. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) test found that the TSES-24 instrument produced three parts, while the TSES-12 produced only two dimensions. Thus, the EFA proves that the TSES-24 is in line with the original TSES created in 2001. From this study, it recommended that TSES-24 is an excellent tool for measuring teacher self-efficacy, especially using ICT to enhance teaching and learning effectiveness.

How to Cite
Mohd Norakmar Omar, Siti Noor Ismail. (2020). Tses-24 or Tses-12: Comparison Based on ICT Context in Malaysian Education. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(05), 7384-7398. Retrieved from http://sersc.org/journals/index.php/IJAST/article/view/18232