Implication of Pre-Evacuation Time Based on 3D Evacuation Simulation by Integrated BIM and GIS
The user behaviour before and during emergency have a substantial impact on total evacuation time. To accomplish the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 11th policy (SDG 11), it is crucial to ensure that the user evacuation process is implemented securely. The importance of approximating evacuation time has been recognized through various studies conducted over time. However, pre-evacuation time is rarely discussed in specific occurrences, especially when involving multiple parameters. This paper proposes a framework that makes evacuation in an indoor environment more realistic with the involvement of the pre-evacuation time factor. The Campus Infrastructure Building (CIB) in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia was used as a case study to validate the proposed framework. The framework was developed based on an integrated three-dimensional (3D) building information modelling (BIM) model of CIB to ensure the geometric precision and assimilates with demographic and physical interaction data collected through interviews and literature review. 3D evacuation simulation was conducted with a combination of multiple-parameters where the results were then implemented as input in sensitivity analysis to determine the critical parameters in evacuation simulation. Duo-situation of evacuation simulation results with and without pre-evacuation time were compared to identify possible evacuation problems. Results analyzed from this study showed that the pre-evacuation time could affect the simulation process such as total evacuation time, evacuation flow and maximize the impact of building critical space. Findings from this study can help stakeholders in understanding the impact of pre-evacuation time and user behaviour to improve emergency management and policies within the indoor environment.