Optimization of Antioxidant Extraction from the Cacao Bean Shell
This research was conducted to determine optimal conditions for antioxidant extractionfrom cacao bean shellsaccording tosolvent type,solvent/shell ratio,and extraction time. Solvents tested included75% ethanol, 85%ethanol, 95% ethanol, ethyl acetate, and a solution of acetone and water at a ratio of 7:3. Solvent/shell ratios tested were 2:1; 3:1; 4:1; 5:1; 6:1; 7:1, and 8:1. Extraction timesof 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5,and 3.0h were applied. The data obtained were analyzed using a completely randomized design applied to the observation oftotal phenolics and antioxidant activity.The largest quantities of phenolics and highest antioxidant activity, i.e., 99.07 ppm and 49.99 ppm, respectively, were obtained with95% ethanol. Various ratios of the highest-value solvents for total phenolics and antioxidant activity, i.e., 122.7 ppm and 55.92 ppm,were obtained at the solvent ratios of 6:1 (v/b) and 6:1 (v/b), respectively.Various extraction times for the highest values for total phenolics and antioxidant activity, i.e., 120.23 ppm and 51.35 ppm, were obtained at 2 h.95% ethanol (95%),a solvent/shell ratio of6:1 (v/b), and2h ofextractionproduced the most total phenolics and antioxidant activity,i.e.,120.23 ppm and 51.35 ppm, respectively.